Science Course Structure (Class 10)
Unit I: Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, Bases and Salts
Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH– ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Pans.
Metals and Non-metals
Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic Classification of Elements
Need for classification, Early attempts at classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.
Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: World of Living
‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals: Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Theme: Natural Phenomena
Unit III: Natural Phenomena
Reflection of Light by Curved Surfaces
Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Laws of refraction, refractive index, Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens.
Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Theme: How Things Work
Unit IV: Effects of Current
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic Effects of Current
Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Electric Generator, Direct current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Theme: Natural Resources
Unit V: Natural Resources
Sources of Energy
Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.
Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.
Management of Natural Resources
Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Practical should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. (A) Finding the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator:
- Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
- Dilute NaOH solution
- Dilute Ethanoic Acid solution
- Lemon juice
- Dilute Hydrogen Carbonate solution
1. (B) Studying the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) on the basis of their reaction with:
- Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
- Zinc metal
- Solid sodium carbonate
2. Performing and observing the following reactions and classifying them into:
- Combination reaction
- Decomposition reaction
- Displacement reaction
- Double displacement reaction
- Action of water on quick lime
- Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
- Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
- Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions
3. Observing the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions:
- ZnSO4 (aq)
- FeSO4 (aq)
- CuSO4 (aq)
- Al2 (SO4)3 (aq)
Arranging Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.
4. Studying the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plotting a graph between V and I.
5. Determination of the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series and parallel.
6. Preparing a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
7. Experimentally show that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
8. Study of the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid):
- solubility in water
- effect on litmus
- reaction with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
9. Study of the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.
10. Determination of the focal length of (a) Concave mirror and (b) Convex lens by obtaining the image of a distant object.
11. Tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
12. Studying (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast and Hydra with the help of prepared slides.
13. Tracing the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.
14. Finding the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and drawing corresponding ray diagrams to show the nature of image formed.
15. Identification of the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).